Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 64

Arctic Yearbook 2014 64 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Daitch explored in the module in Activity 5, “Colonial Policies and the Creation of the Residential School System,” in Activity 6, “Perspectives on the History of Colonization,” as well as in Activities 10-12. The student sample was made up of Dene, Inuit, Inuvialuit/Inuinnait, Métis and nonIndigenous students, including students of Eurosettler ancestry, other immigrant ancestry, and students who identified as recent immigrants to Canada. To create the student surveys used in this study, I adapted the surveys created by Facing History and Ourselves, which researched the influence of Holocaust education on students in the USA. The organization conducted a 5-year evaluation study, aiming to measure social and ethical awareness and civic learning. I obtained permission from the authors of the survey tools from the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and from the authors of the additional scales adapted for the FHAO research, to use and adapt the tools for the Canadian North. All survey tools were adapted to replace references in the U.S to Canadian and Northern references (Selman, R. L., Barr, D. J., Feigenberg, L., & Facing History and Ourselves 2007a; Fine, Bermudez, & Facing History 2007; Flanagan et al., 2007; Kahne, et al. 2006). To complete this study, I obtained ethical approval and research licenses from the University of Victoria Human Research Ethics Review Board, the Aurora Research Institute in the NWT, and the Nunavut Research Institute. To obtain a research license in the NWT through Aurora Research Institute, 23 Indigenous governance organizations, regional bodies and municipalities were consulted and had an opportunity to comment and ask questions about the study. With the support of the territorial education departments respective Deputy Ministers, I was granted permission from school superintendents in each region in the NWT and Nunavut to undertake the study informing this paper. In the study informing this paper, none of the student participants are former residential school students. However, 54% of student participants reported that they have family members who attended the schools, and are therefore intergenerational survivors. An additional 22% did not know whether a family member had attended, and 24% did not have a family member attend residential schools; this data is drawn from student survey results. During student sharing circles, some non-Indigenous students self identified as being from new immigrant families; their comments are reported as such in this paper. Each of the key over arching themes discussed begins with a student vignette from a different sharing circle. The vignettes highlight overlapping themes, which appeared across qualitative and quantitative sets of study findings: teacher surveys, student surveys and student sharing circles and focus groups. Student civic learning and community engagement describe the teacher’s ability to promote students’ understanding of key democratic principles and values, including freedom of expression, the protection of vulnerable groups, equity and justice, and the importance of civic participation (Barr 2010; Seixas 2006).