Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 524

Arctic Yearbook 2014 524 national state level as the ideal type of national government system. This model of management has become an exclusive partnership between the national government and natural science institutions. This has made the local and regional level of democracy redundant, thereby concentrating power in the national government and parliament. The Norwegian Parliament has, in 2013, opened 40 000 km2 of the Barents Sea for drilling operations and petroleum exploitation while no new sea areas have been permanently made maritime reserves, national parks or world heritage. The Norwegian Government and Parliament has opened 25% of the sea areas in the Barents Sea and the Norwegian Sea for oil drilling and petroleum production while only 0.13% has been closed permanently as natural reserves, maritime reserves or national park areas. Conclusions: Exploitation of the Barents Sea Greenpeace is working internationally for a long-term solution on a governmental agreement embodying a permanent, equitable and overarching treaty or multi-lateral agreement that protects the Arctic Ocean. The solution sought is governmental and international agreement with permanent maritime reserves in the Polar Oceans. The Norwegian policy is permanent conservation of 10% of key areas for biodiversity production which includes the Lofoten Islands and ice-front of the Barents Sea. It has not b Y[