Arctic Yearbook 2014
The author would furthermore like to thank its former fellow students Heather Murphy and Philipp
Schulz from the Department for Peace & Conflict Research at Uppsala University for their useful
comments and feedback on this article.
1. In the further course, this article will also make use of the abbreviation ‘VD’11’ in order to
refer to the most recent version of the Vienna Document adopted in November 2011
2. Similar provisions on the ZoA have for example also been made in the in 2002 adopted
‘Document on confidence- and security-building measures in the naval field in the Black Sea’
Treaties and Agreements
A/57/82 (2002). Document on confidence- and security-building measures in the naval field in the Black Sea.
Arctic Council (2013). Vision for the Arctic. Arctic Council.
OS (2002). Treaty on Open Skies. OSCE.
The Ottawa Declaration (1996). Declaration on Establishment of The Arctic Council. Arctic Council.
VD'11 (2011). Vienna Document 2011 on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures. OSCE.
Bergh, K. (2014). About security and geopolitics in the Arctic as well as the potential contribution of
CSBMs in the region. Conducted by the author. Stockholm. 28.04.2014.
Josefsson, H. (2014). About the effectiveness and quality of OS verification flights and a possible
future role of OS in the Arctic region. Conducted by the author. Uppsala, Sweden. 22.04.2014.
Lind, G. (2014). About the perception of military security and the role of the Arctic Council in a
possible future regime of CSBMs in the Arctic region. Conducted by the author. Stockholm.
Wezeman, S. T. (2014). About military capabilities and equipment in the Arctic region as well as a
potential role of CSBMs in the area. Conducted by the author. Stockholm. 28.04.2014.
Confidence- & Security-Building Measures in the Arctic