Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 294

294 Arctic Yearbook 2014 In the Canadian Arctic, tourism is considered both a stimuli and an agent of change for the region (Stewart, Draper, Dawson 2011). The promotional budgets for tourism in the region are lower than for the Canadian provinces with the Yukon ($5.2 million), Northwest Territories ($2.6 million), and Nunavut ($1.9 million) spending $9.7 million in total on marketing activities in 2011 (Belik 2013). Tourism in the Canadian Arctic is mainly based on wildlife and landscape linked to the extensive network of protected areas in the region (Lemelin & Johnston 2008; Dawson, Maher, & Slocombe 2007). The Yukon attracts three times as many visitors as the Northwest Territories and Nunavut due to greater accessibility from an extensive road infrastructure and cheaper airfares. The lack of roads in the eastern Arctic and higher airfares limit the numbers of leisure tourists, attracting mainly business travellers. Nunavut tour operators also report that sport hunting is declining and nonconsumptive, ecotourism is increasing (Belik 2013). The growth of expedition cruising in the Canadian Arctic from increased access due to climate change is also resulting in negative cultural and environmental impacts in the form of people pollution, the sale of marine mammal parts for souvenirs, and increased garbage in local communities (Maher, 2012, Stewart, Dawson & Draper 2011; Klein 2010). The following recommendations are proposed as an overall strategy to promote sustainable forms of tourism in the Canadian Arctic: • • • • • Need for guides in the Canadian Arctic to educate visitors about impacts of climate change and need for lifestyle and behavioural changes (Maher 2012; Luck 2009). Increased national and regional marketing budgets to be competitive with other destinations (CTC 2012). A review of transportation cost structures in Canada especially aviation cost structures that download taxes and fees on the individual traveler, making Canada one of the most expensive destinations in the world (TIAC 2012). A comprehensive monitoring and surveillance system examining expedition cruising in the Canadian Arctic (Maher 2012; Stewart, Draper, & Dawson 2010). Empirical studies and adaptation strategies addressing the issue of climate change for the polar tourism sector (Kajan, 2014; Dawson, Stewart, Lemelin & Scott 2010). Iceland Tourism in Iceland has in recent years experienced a dramatic growth. Since 2000 the number of tourist arrivals has increased annually by 8% on average and was estimated to be 807,000 in 2013. From 2012 to 2013 the growth was 20% (Ferðamálastofa 2014). At present, tourism exports provide around 26.8% of foreign currency receipts and provides jobs for about 7000 people or about 5% of the workforce (Arion banki 2013; Ferðamálastofa 2014). The rapid growth has created opportunities as well as challenges. Here the major challenges of tourism in Iceland are condensed into four interrelated key points: 1) tourism policy, 2) social and environmental impacts, 3) infrastructure, and 4) research, education and training. Arctic Tourism