Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 253

253 Arctic Yearbook 2014   require strong leaders, good cooperation, administrative support, resources and community understanding of tourism, and a shared vision and communication. (Selin, Myers 1998; Blackmann et al. 2004; Moscardo 2008). The three study cases presented in this article are about places, of small-scale and peripheral, with dominant hunting and fishing activities. The development of tourism activities took place due to a combination of different factors including: • spontaneous forms, i.e. in South Greenland with the sheep farmers; • more structured, i.e. in West North Greenland; • responding to the need of finding alternatives, i.e. the attempts made by the communities of the High North of Greenland. Not all the places show the same degree of local dynamism and local cooperation. Sometimes it is a person, or a group, who is able to foresee and risk a new initiative, e.g. creating a tourist product for cruise ship tourists like in Ukkusissat. Generally, the attitude in regard to tourism development is positive, but local communities in peripheral areas seldom have the business skills necessary to engage successfully over the long term. The level of information among the local population regarding tourism development options and support is quite limited as shown by the field work. Also, financial and technical assistance as well as training on the different skills necessary when starting with tourism activities were deemed necessary. Interviewees asked for more structured courses and information. At present the involvement of the community in the process of development and planning is almost incomplete when not absent. It is important to identify the interested actors and establish parameters for the participation and training of local residents in the tourism sector; identify linkages with the local (both, formal and informal) economy that can stimulate multiplier effects; and find the existence of tourist products and experiences that encourage a general approach to promote and enhance the development of tourism in the community (Tommasini, 2011). When planning for community development, a successful development has to be established in cooperation with the local communities. Such development has to rely on: • Local initiative (local people developing the living conditions within their own region). • Local involvement (people who are actively and independently willing to participate in the process). • Local partnership (cooperation based on the common aims of the local people). Notes Tourism, Human Capital & Regional Development in Three Communities in Greenland