Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 139

139 Arctic Yearbook 2014   In other words, in the beginning of the academic year, which is usually put off in comparison with the other types of training, the students of the extramural tuition get a so called “adjusting course” (as a rule the academic year of the full- and part-time studies starts on September, 1, and lasts till June, 30, inclusive; as for the extramural studies, the academic year starts later, on October, 1). The adjusting course is a brief review of the subjects (several introductory lectures), which the students will study independently in the future and pass examinations in them. The adjusting course usually lasts 2 - 3 weeks of working days. Then over the course of about 4 - 5 months the students train independently in the subjects they have had at the adjusting course. In 4 5 months the examination takes place, during which time educators determine the students' level of the subject knowledge and attest them. After that the students receive the next adjusting course for a new set of subjects and everything repeats over 4 - 5 months. The externship is the independent training by the student of the subjects provided by the educational programme in the chosen specialty with the following attestation (current and final) in the institute of higher education. The lessons of the exemplary evening studies are conducted in the evening. Usually there are 6 - 8 lessons per week. The evening studies are convenient for those who work. The lessons usually start after 18:00. Usually there are 2 - 3 pairs or paired lessons (1 pair lasts 80 minutes). The contact lessons do not take so much time in comparison with the lessons of full-time studies. The percentage of lessons with a teacher and independent studies is 50%. Contact lessons are usually conducted in the form of lectures, seminars, colloquiums, etc. Recently a modified type of the exemplary evening studies has been extended. The difference of this training type from the exemplary evening studies is that the lessons are conducted in weekend days, mostly on Saturdays or Sundays (sometimes there can be two days running), and the number of pairs is increased to 4 - 5 per day consequently (Information and Analytical System). Though distance or online education is developing in Russia, there are a lot of gaps in the national educational standards. The world experience, particularly in the Arctic, is very important. Generally online learning is a form of distance learning, and distance learning is just that - learning at a distance - education unbound from the physical site of a classroom. The terms distance learning, distance education, virtual education, and online education are often used interchangeably. “Distance” refers to the geographic separation between teachers and students, as well as the time gap that can separate lessons taught and lessons learned. Students can attend a college regardless of geography with the ease and control of technology. Distance learning is not a new phenomenon - correspondence courses have been around for centuries and it is common today for people to self-educate themselves via CD-ROM, DVD, podcasts, and other technological tools - but the evolution of the Internet ushered in a new era of distance learning: widespread online higher education. Distance Education in the Northern Regions of Russia