Arctic Yearbook 2014 - Page 118

Arctic Yearbook 2014 118 North America, Japan and Oceania South America Asia Former Soviet Union Iraq/Iran Central and South Africa North Africa and Middle East Turkey The former Yugoslavia Poland Baltic Countries Eastern Europe South Europe Central and Northern Europe Norway/Island Denmark Finland municipalities bordering Finland. In general, however, regional differences did not play a crucial role in employment opportunities and the size of earnings. The interaction between ethnic group labour market outcomes and local labour markets was not pronounced. The main finding concerning these interactions was that Swedish-born women and immigrant women from the Nordic countries had lower earnings and LFP when residing in remote areas, but immigrant women from the former Soviet Union, Asia, South America, North America, Japan, and Oceania had lower earnings and employment rates in the cities. Earnings of immigrant women were slightly higher in the remote areas of Norrbotten. 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -40% -50% -60% All mothers Married Unadjusted Figure 8: Immigrant women’s LFP rate deficits relative to Swedish-born women after five years since immigration. The blue and red bars show the differences after controlling for the set of explanatory variables. The green bars show the differences in the raw data. The estimates of regressions, where individuals from three border municipalities were excluded, are not presented in the paper, but available upon request. Differences between Swedish-born and Finnish mothers did not disappear after eliminating “the border effect”. Conclusions Arctic labour markets have been experiencing a remarkable growth over past decades. Mainly, this has been due to exploration of natural resource deposits and new technologies of their extraction. Kotyrlo