Arctic Yearbook 2014
other groups (Appendix A1). Some differences were observed in terms of the geographical
distribution of employment for immigrant and Swedish-born women, but there was no evidence for
any tendencies in terms of cities vs. remote areas or coastal vs. inland municipalities (Figure 3).
Unemployment was still considered equal to one if a person had non-zero unemployment
allowances or income from a job-training program during the year of observation. Although the
period of unemployment can vary from one to twelve months out of the year, the duration was not
available in the data. The lowest proportion of unemployed women was among those originating
from Denmark, Central and Northern Europe, Southern Europe, and North America, Japan, and
Oceania (14%–18%). The highest proportions of unemployed women were from the former Soviet
Union (32%), former Yugoslavia (28%), Baltic Countries (26%), South America (25%,) and Finland
(24%). Remarkably, female “refugees” had lower unemployment rates (19%–21%). The large
discrepancy between LFP and unemployment in this group means that a large share of women from
the “refugee” groups are neither employed nor registered as unemployed and searching for a job.
The geographical distribution of unemployment reveals a similarity between native and immigrant
women in terms of a higher probability of having income related to unemployment allowances in
the municipalities on the border with Finland and inland from the coast (Figure 4). However, even
here it was still the case that the proportion of unemployed immigrants was greater than that of
Figure 4: The proportion of women with registered incomes from unemployment allowance or vocational training
grants among Swedish-born (left) and migrant women (right). Panel data 1995–2009.