AORE Association News June 2015 - Page 14

AORE Research and Publication Update (cont.) Frauman found that there was no statistical difference between males and females and both groups agreed “… that intuition should play a role in staff training and leading in the field” (2015, p. 52). When factoring in (as covariates) one’s tendency to use intuition and work experience Frauman found no significant differences with regard to experience. However, he did find significant differences between males and females with regard to one’s tendency to use intuition with males “overall intuition tendency” being slightly higher than females. He also found that males are at least likely to rely on a range of “gut feelings” (e.g., physical sensations that alert and feelings that reassure) as females. Possible Action Steps  Train your staff and field leaders to trust and use their intuition. Teaching meditation techniques and regular journaling are ways that people can learn and reflect about their intuition.  Use “premortems” (i.e., identifying solutions to possible friction points prior to field trips). Take the time to build relationship amongst your staff and build regular feedback for leaders instructors and participants alike.  Take the time to read the Power of Intuition (Klein, G., 2003) for details on how to train and safeguard intuition. 3. Goldenberg, M., & Soule, K. E. (2014). A four-year follow-up of means-end outcomes from outdoor adventure programs. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1-12. doi: 10.1080/14729679.2014.970343 In the last article, Goldenberg and Soule (2014) conducted follow-up interviews with 200 of 510 Outward Bound (OB) and National Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) alumni in order to; 1) determine the attributes, consequences and values participants associated with OB & NOLS courses, and 2) how have the outcomes associated with OB and NOLS courses changed four years later. Given the mostly anecdotal evidence that outdoor adventure programs have a positive long-term effect on participants there is a need to determine if indeed there are actual long-term positive benefits for participants. Goldenberg and Soule used hierarchical value maps (HBMs) to analyze, illustrate, and compare over time, the relationships between the attributes, consequences and values as perceived by the participants. Directly after the participants’ adventure the most common attribute was expeditioning and group, the most common consequences were interactions, having new experience/opportunity and being challenged. The most common values were transference, sense of accomplishment, and gaining an increase in self-respect, self-esteem, and self-confidence. After four years the most common attribute was group and expeditioning. The most common consequences were interactions, having new experience/ opportunity and being challenged, while the most common values were transference, self-respect, self-esteem, and selfconfidence, self-awareness, and a sense of accomplishment. It is clear that four years after an adventure course the participants value the transferability of the values gained from the course. Possible Action Steps  This study provides evidence for long-term (at least four years) of many interpersonal and intrapersonal skills which outdoor adventure programs support.  Plan or review programs while keeping in mind values like transference, sense of accomplishment and increase in selfrespect, self-esteem and self-confidence.  Incorporating these values as program outcomes proved a good tool when developing funding opportunities and marketing strategies. References Dane, E. & Pratt, M. G. (2009). Conceptualizing and measuring intuition: A review of recent trends. In G. P. Hodgkinson & J. K. Ford (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology, 24, (pp. 1-40). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley. Klein, G. (2003). The power of intuition (Paperback ed.). New York: Doubleday. 14