have previously elected pre-tax deferrals in 2006 under predecessor nonqualified deferred compensation plans. Under this plan the employee may defer a portion of his/her salary, bonus, and other compensation. Additionally, the plan provides for supplemental employer matching contributions related to any compensation deferred by the employee that would have been eligible for a matching contribution under the retirement savings plan if it were not for certain IRS limitations. Income Taxes: The ACA and PCA accrue federal and state income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for future tax consequences of temporary differences between the carrying amounts and tax basis of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets are recorded if the deferred tax asset is more likely than not to be realized. If the realization test cannot be met, the deferred tax asset is reduced by a valuation allowance. The expected future tax consequences of uncertain income tax positions are accrued. The FLCA is exempt from federal and other taxes to the extent provided in the Farm Credit Act. Patronage Program: We accrue patronage distributions according to a prescribed formula approved by the Board of Directors. Generally, we pay the accrued patronage during the first quarter after year end. Off-Balance Sheet Credit Exposures: Commitments to extend credit are agreements to lend to customers, generally having fixed expiration dates or other termination clauses. Standby letters of credit are agreements to pay a beneficiary if there is a default on a contractual arrangement. Any reserve for unfunded lending commitments and unexercised letters of credit is based on management’s best estimate of losses inherent in these instruments, but the commitments have not yet disbursed. Factors such as likelihood of disbursal and likelihood of losses given disbursement are utilized in determining a reserve, if needed. Based on our assessment, any reserve is recorded in “Other liabilities” in the Consolidated Statements of Condition and a corresponding loss is recorded in “Provision for credit losses” in the Consolidated Statements of Income. However, no such reserve was necessary as of December 31, 2018, 2017, or 2016. Cash: For purposes of reporting cash flow, cash includes cash on hand. Fair Value Measurement: The accounting guidance describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value. Level 1 — Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the reporting entity has the ability to access at the measurement date. Level 2 — Observable inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability either directly or indirectly. Level 2 inputs include: Quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets Quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active so that they are traded less frequently than exchange-traded instruments, quoted prices that are not current, or principal market information that is not released publicly Inputs that are observable such as interest rates and yield curves, prepayment speeds, credit risks, and default rates Inputs derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means Level 3 — Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities. These unobservable inputs reflect the reporting entity’s own judgments about assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Level 3 assets and liabilities include financial instruments whose value is determined using pricing models, discounted cash flow methodologies, or similar techniques, as well as instruments for which the determination of fair value requires significant management judgment or estimation. Recently Issued or Adopted Accounting Pronouncements We have assessed the potential impact of accounting standards that have been issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and have determined the following standards to be applicable to our business. While we are a nonpublic entity, our financial results are closely related to the performance of the combined Farm Credit System. Therefore, we typically adopt accounting pronouncements on the public business entities effective date or aligned with other System institutions, whichever is earlier. Standard and effective date In May 2014, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) 2014-09 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers." This guidance was effective for public business entities on January 1, 2018. In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-07 “Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Cost.” This guidance was effective for public business entities on January 1, 2018. Description The guidance governs revenue recognition from contracts with customers and requires an entity to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. Financial instruments and other contractual rights within the scope of other guidance issued by the FASB are excluded from the scope of this guidance. The guidance sets forth the requirement for new and enhanced disclosures. This guidance requires that an employer disaggregate the service cost component from the other components of net benefit cost. Specifically, the guidance requires non-service cost components of net benefit cost to be recognized in a non-operating income line item of the income statement and allow only the service cost component of net benefit cost to be eligible for capitalization. 20 Adoption status and financial statement impact We adopted this guidance on January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective approach, as the majority of our revenues are not subject to the new guidance. The adoption of the guidance did not have a material impact on the financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. We adopted this guidance on January 1, 2018. The adoption of the guidance did not impact our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, or financial statement disclosures.