AL'JIHAD : MESSENGERS (Angels & Devil) IN THE SKY (Captured Picture) AL'JIHAD Seventh Edition - Coker College copy - Page 640

680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi'at Ali ("party of Ali") or Shi'a sect. 685-705 Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of administration - Arabic becomes official written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established. late 600s Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam. 700-800s Groups of ascetics and mystics begin to form 710 Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa. 732 Muslim empire reaches its furthest extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards. 747 Revolt defeats the Umayyads. 750 Abu l'Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq 754 Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, "city of peace") becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire. 755 Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain. 765 Division within Shi'ites - majority are the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co- exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma'iliyaa (Seveners). 786-809 Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights. 800s Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule. 813-33 Reign of Ma'mun. Theological controversy over whether the Qur'an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center for translation of texts from Greek to Arabic founded in Baghdad. 869-883 Uprisings of black slaves (Zanj) are eventually defeated. 908 First Fatimid caliph in Tunisia. 928 Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba. 940 Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the "Hidden Imam." 945 The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph. 969 Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al- Qahira, "the victorious city") is founded. 980-1037 Life of Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher. 996-1021 Reign of Fatimid al-Hakim. Hamza ibn Ali forms basis of esoteric Druze religion. “AL’JIHAD”– by, Imam Mahdi . © ® ™ : Of 842 Pages Is 640