Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Africa Water, Sanitation Jan -Feb 2014 Vol.10 No1 - Page 23

SUWASA News A Growing Market for Fecal Sludge Management According to a 2013 household sanitation survey by SUWASA, 55% of respondents reported having access to a toilet, 40.7% share a toilet, 2.7% practice open defecation whilst the remainder use public toilets. Of those who had toilets, 2% had access to a sewer connection, and the remainder had access to pit latrines or pour-flush toilets. 40% of these onsite toilets can be emptied by mechanized exhausters. Given that the piped water supply network serves only 20% of the city’s population, continued use of onsite sanitation facilities is expected. . Based on fecal sludge generation in Africa by Chowdhry and Kone (2012), it is estimated that Juba generates more than 45 million liters of fecal sludge annually (Table 1). Table 1: Fecal Sludge Generation in Juba However, SUWASA’s 2013 survey of exhauster tankers revealed that Roton lagoon received at least 2.5 million liters of sludge a day. This equates to a very high generation rate of 11.6 liters per person per day. Possible explanations include the prevalent use of water for anal cleansing, use of toilets as bathing facilities as well as possibility of toilets receiving high volumes of rain runoff. An Active Fecal Sludge Transportation Industry Figure 1: Exhausters emptying at Roton wastewater lagoon Juba has a very active mechanized exhauster service, accounting for over 96% of fecal sludge handled. A SUWASA survey of exhauster businesses revealed over 150 exhauster tankers operating in Juba, with over 97% owned by private companies and individuals. Nine (9) exhauster trucks are owned by four public sector agencies The 150 trucks equates to a ratio of households to exhauster truck of over 350:1, very high in comparison to other African cities (14500:1 according to Chowdry and Kone 2012) Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene • January - February 2015 23