Essential elements of construction training programs • Propose modifications to current practice, seeking feedback though surveys and workshops with local skilled labourers. Disasters worldwide have helped technical experts hone in on hazard-resistant design and construction techniques for a wide array of local materials – including adobe, bamboo, stone and timber. Yet local tradespeople and technical specialists may not have access to these hard-earned lessons. • Develop multi-hazard safe construction guidelines and training manuals. Illustrated construction manuals, especially when paired with training programs, transfer important lessons to communities. The reference manual remains in the community long after training is over and the safe school project is complete. The most effective manuals: • Provide a strong connection between hazard-resistant construction techniques and the outcome – safe buildings. • Are based on local construction practice but teach adjustments necessary to achieve safety. An illustrated construction sequence reminds construction workers how to attach concrete block spacers before building formwork. It also reminds them to pour and compact concrete in the bottom half of the column before forming and pouring the top half. When combined with construction-worker training, drawings like these can remind workers of the important hazard-resistant construction techniques they need to use on a safe school project. Graphic: Arup • Correspond to national building codes or international guidelines for good practice. • Take into account local culture, climate, materials and economy. • Address new and retrofit construction. • Rely heavily, even exclusively, on illustrations, photos and visuals that construction workers with low literacy and without technical training can understand. Construction manuals, and associated training, should be developed by technical experts in consultation with tradespeople in the target communities. The process should mirror that of community-based safe school construction. It should: • Identify natural hazards to which the community is prone. SECTION III: CONSTRUCTION 81 • Survey the construction practice of the community and identify weaknesses through engineering analysis or a review of past disaster damages. An illustrated poster reminds Bangladeshi owners about key aspects of column construction and column-to-roof connections during post-disaster construction of transition shelters. Graphic: CRS and Caritas Bangladesh.