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SECTION I: INTRODUCTION How to use this manual This manual specifically addresses a school building’s capacity to withstand natural hazards: floods, earthquakes, landslides, cyclones and high winds. While school safety in conflict zones or during acts of terrorism will not be covered in depth, vignettes will provide some examples for these situations. The INEE 2004 Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Construction should be consulted for these situations. Social safety issues – bullying, sexual assault, ethnic violence, hygiene and other safety considerations during the delivery of educational services – will also not be covered in depth. See UNICEF’s 2009 publication Child Friendly Schools for these operational aspects of safety. The information and advice contained in this publication should be adapted to any given local context, and this publication is not a substitute for specific engineering advice. Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of information. Save the Children, GFDRR, UNESCO, Arup, Risk RED, and the authors accept no liability for actions taken as a result of this report. Why use a community-based approach? Section I explains why a community-based approach can lead to safe schools and empowered communities. Key principles at the end of the chapter summarise the essential principles. The section ends with a case study highlighting some successes and challenges of applying these key principles in post-disaster school reconstruction in Haiti. What is the community-based process? Section II describes the general process of communitybased school construction. It examines the opportunities, challenges and strategies that arise in community-based construction, as well as four cross-cutting themes of the approach. The section ends with a case study of a national community-based school construction program initiated in Indonesia. How is a community-based school construction program run? Section III offers specific guidance on achieving school safety and community empowerment during the five stages of community-based safer school construction – mobilisation, planning, design, construction and postconstruction. In each stage, look for several elements: • Each stage starts with Key activities and considerations, which describes how to implement safer school construction principles. • Brightly coloured In context boxes provide examples of how these key activities have been applied in the field. • Resource boxes suggest further reading. • A list of important issues to consider can be found in a Key considerations for practitioners table near the end of each stage. • Each stage ends with a Case study exploring one safer school project in-depth, especially noting the decisions and challenges made at the stage under consideration. Case studies end with key lessons the practitioners took away from the project. While reading the document from start to finish is recommended, each section and stage of construction can be read independently. VII