45179_towardssaferschoolconstruction_0 (2015) - Page 77

Communities without formal training and professional experience cannot be required to take on the technical oversight and moral responsibility of ensuring schools are constructed safely. Ensuring safety remains the responsibilty of the implementing agency. • Community management: High community involvement. School management committees may manage construction projects directly. This strategy assumes the committee oversees all construction management roles, including purchase of material, hiring of skilled tradespeople and unskilled labourers, and day-to-day execution. However, it is fundamental for the committee have technical support. A community leader without formal training and professional experience cannot be required to take on the technical oversight or the responsibility of ensuring schools are constructed safely. When this strategy is used, the program manager should ensure the school management committee has the support of qualified technical people, such as third-party engineers, as discussed in the Construction Stage. These people should provide technical guidance, ensuring construction monitoring is robust and that the instalments of funds are released only after monitoring shows the construction is compliant with the design. • Contractor management: Moderate community involvement. Other strategies of community-based safer school construction engage the school community to a lesser extent. The program manager or school management committee may put the construction out for tender and select a contractor. These contractors are often community residents with professional construction management experience. The hired contractor carries out the construction of core structural components. A wider number of community members may participate in some construction tasks that are not directly tied to structural safety. The school management committee should still be part of construction monitoring and serve as a local reporting body for construction progress. In an alternative approach to contractor management, a school management committee may hire a local labour contractor but retain the responsibility of purchasing materials. • Agency direct build: Low community involvement. In some situations, development actors or government agencies may retain considerable control over the construction process. They may hire the contractor or use trained in-house contractors. This strategy may be desirable when speed is essential, when they are managing a program with many school construction projects, or when community familiarity with the selected construction technology is particularly low (see In context: Building back better in the Community Design Stage RESOURCE BOX Resources on communitybased project management The 2013 Catholic Relief Services’ How-To Guide for Managing Post-Disaster (Re)-Construction Projects provides detailed advice for and successful examples of owner-driven and contractorbuilt construction using a community-based approach. For each type of construction, the guide covers important topics such as procurement, tendering, scheduling, construction monitoring, payment procedures, project completion and required staff for successful construction projects. Although focused on post-disaster housing reconstruction, Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing Housing and Communities after Natural Disasters, published by the World Bank and the GFDRR, offers an overview on project governance and accountability action plans. Such plans can support transparency and reduce corruption in large-scale construction projects. section and the Section 1 case study on Haiti for examples of this approach). SECTION III: DESIGN Moral responsibility for safety Even when a direct-build strategy is used, the program manager should retain some aspects of the communitybased approach to maximise hazard awareness. Local community members may still provide a portion of unskilled labour to boost their income and build a sense of ownership. More familiar aspects of the construction should be subcontracted to local tradespeople if available. The sch ool management committee and others should support the non-technical aspects of construction monitoring. These tasks should be selected in ways that build community familiarity with hazard-resistant construction and, ideally, enhance their capacity to use it in their community. 68