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Resources for planning A variety of tools and resources exist to support community-based and participatory processes for hazard, vulnerabilities and capacities analysis. Whilst each tool is based on the same underlying objective of engaging communities to explore, understand, document and act upon identified risk, each individual agency’s tool tends to be slightly different to suite the p articular organisational needs or mandate. Below are some examples of tools, all of which are available online. The 2007 International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies’ VCA toolbox provides guidance and strategies for engaging volunteers and communities in vulnerability and capacity assessments. Participatory hazard mapping is one tool included in this guide that is particularly important for communities planning safer school construction projects. The ActionAid’s Participatory Vulnerability Analysis guidance aims to provide field practitioners with stepby-step guidance on how to assess vulnerability, with a particular focus on how to link development and emergencies, and how to use local analysis to influence national policy. A mandate for safety In community-based construction, program managers have a crucial role to play in the hazard assessment process. They can facilitate dialogue between locals and hazard specialists and, more importantly, they can provide a clear mandate for safety. Where hazard exposure is routine and may be underplayed by local communities, program managers should hold safety as the paramount criteria for site selection, design and construction. SECTION III: PLANNING RESOURCE BOX Both hazard specialists and local communities can also consider large-scale changes that may increase the severity or frequency of hazards. For example, on a global and regional scale, climate change will cause important shifts in the frequency and severity of temperature extremes, cyclones and flood events. At the local and regional scale, deforestation may increase erosion and flooding. Accounting for imminent changes during project planning is essential to sustain the safety of school buildings. Plan International’s 2010 Child-centred DRR Toolkit outlines how to take a childcentred approach to hazard, vulnerability and capacity analysis. 48