Key activity 2: Tool identification After better understanding the broad context in which the safer school construction project will occur, program managers need to gather existing tools to support the program, or adapt tools from elsewhere. Program managers and stakeholders should seek welldeveloped or adaptable tools for: • Hazard awareness tools. NGOs, government agencies or individuals in the education sector may already have hazard maps, explanations, images or multimedia to help communities understand natural hazards. Comprehensive school safety school self-assessment template provides a strong starting point for school-community involvement. SECTION III: MOBILISATION • School facilities safety tools. Stakeholders may have physical models or images from past disasters that can be used to convince local communities that schools can be built to withstand hazards. Some of the most convincing tools for structural awareness may include videos of comparative shake table demonstrations, graphic demonstrations of typical construction errors vs. safer practices, physical models, images from past disasters. Visual materials are key to communicating technical information to all audiences, especially those that may have low levels of literacy. The Comprehensive School Safety Framework and other global initiatives provide a good foundation for reaching consensus on the need for safer schools. However, they may need to be translated into local languages. • Procurement and financial management tools. Program managers may need to search for guidelines within their orga nisation, within the society they work or within stakeholder organisations. Procurement and financial management guidelines, especially when already tailored for community use, can help increase transparency. These tools support communities that are not familiar with managing construction projects. Transparency and community oversight has been demonstrated to have significant positive impacts on construction quality. When school communities understand they are exposed to natural hazards but that their school buildings can be built to resist those hazards, they can be effective partners in safer school construction. Raising community awareness begins with an assessment of their knowledge. Eventually, it leads to dialogue within the community and with a wider group of stakeholders, including those who can provide further insight on natural hazard risks and safer construction practices. Raising awareness, as part of broad community mobilisation, includes several aspects: • Identify stakeholders and assess current knowledge. A school community is comprised of diverse stakeholders, including students, parents and school staff. However, the community is not limited to immediate users of the school. Schools are a central institution in a community, one in which the public has keen interest. Nearby residents and community leaders have a stake in the safety of a local school too. Functionally, the school community also extends to the government agencies involved in education or construction oversight. Because community-based school construction often relies heavily on local labour, the school community also includes skilled tradespeople and unskilled labourers. Contractors, architects, engineers and inspectors also play key roles. For the duration of the project they can be considered school community members. Program managers should initiate conversations between stakeholders to understand their initial risk awareness. For example, what hazards concern them and what strategies they believe may be effective in protecting them. A review of how disasters, risk and safety are covered in public media could unearth common perceptions and even misconceptions. At the same time, stakeholders could identify complementary disaster risk-reduction or riskawareness activities in the community to build linkages and support each other’s messages. • Construction training tools. Program managers will need tools for training local labour in hazard-resistant construction. It is important to determine whether qualified local builders can be identified through certification programs, guilds or other means, or if such systems should be built into the program. Good practice in risk communication • Construction supervision or tools for oversight. Safe construction hinges on robust construction supervision. Program managers should look for existing certification, training, financial, construction inspection and auditing tools. • Risks explained as inevitable certainties, not complex probabilities. When proven tools do not exist, program managers should adapt tools from other organisations with similar mandates, or from other regions with similar construction and hazard exposure. This adaptation needs to be more than a mere translation into local languages. The adaptation should include collaborative review with stakeholders and users to ensure the tools are culturally relevant and understandable. 37 Key activity 3: Raising awareness • Consistent messaging across all sources. • Accurate, timely and complete information. • Hazards explained but higher emphasis placed on how hazards could affect valuable community assets, such as children, education, shelter and livelihoods. • Emphasis on specific actions that communities or individuals can do to protect the assets they value, such as building safe schools.