45179_towardssaferschoolconstruction_0 (2015) - Page 38

Crosscutting efforts in the community-based approach SECTION II: OVERVIEW While safer school construction is divided into five discrete stages, several efforts cut across these stages and their key activities. The prominence of these crosscutting efforts – raising awareness, building capacity, institutionalisation and community participation – change over time. In some stages, the crosscutting effort may be particularly prominent, indicated by a higher line in the graph below; in other stages, it may be lower. But each is present to some degree at each stage of the community-based approach. The following diagrams show the prominence each crosscutting effort should have in each stage. Reading from right to left shows the chronological progression of each stage. Prominence of community participation • Identify hazards • Mobilise around school safety • Form school management committee Community participation A community-based approach to safer school construction is based on continuous community participation. Through community participation, school designs are better attuned to local needs, meaning communities are better prepared to maintain them and better equipped to live with local hazards. The goal is not to lay all responsibility on communities. Rather, they should lead activities in which they are skilled and collaborate with experts in areas where they have little experience. • Monitor construction • Identify needs and capacities • Participate in construction • Select site • Attend trainings and orientations • Commemorate and maintain school safety • Build a culture of safety • Select design Strategic planning & community mobilisation Community planning Community design Community construction Post-construction Stages of construction Increasing awareness Safer schools are grounded in community awareness of hazards as well as the planning, design, construction and maintenance strategies that protect schools and their occupants from these hazards. When communities are not familiar with risk-reduction strategies, awareness-raising in the Mobilisation Stage needs to be specific and targeted. Growing community awareness will then need reinforcement during the Prominence of increasing awareness • Understand hazards • Understand need for, and possibility of, safe schools Strategic planning & community mobilisation • Identify local hazards and understand regional ones • Understand safe site selection Community planning • Learn about hazardresistant design characteristics Community design Community Planning Stage as communities engage with experts to understand hazards and to select a site. In the next Design and Construction Stages, design consultation and construction training should raise community awareness about hazard-resistant construction techniques and their effectiveness. Tradespeople and labourers especially need in-depth training in these new construction techniques. In the final Post-Construction Stage, commemorative ceremonies and visual displays can serve as ongoing awareness tools long after the construction is complete. • Learn about hazardresistant construction techniques Community construction Stages of construction 29 • Understand importance of maintenance Post-construction