2. Key activities of the Community Planning Stage During the Planning Stage the school management committee and program manager work with stakeholders to identify community goals. The stage also lays groundwork for a safer school by assessing the school site for hazards and identifying what community training is needed. SECTION II: OVERVIEW • Assessing needs. Schools serve important educational and community development purposes. The needs assessment identifies how the school can best serve the community. • Conducting a feasibility study. A feasibility study ensures projects are practical and achievable in light of community capacity, hazards, material availability and available construction sites. • Drafting an implementation plan. Before moving into the Design Stage, the school management committee and program manager develop an implementation plan describing tasks and their timeline. Especially important tasks are those that increase community knowledge and skills in hazard-resistant construction. Stage 2. Community planning Advantages • Ensures community needs and values guide the project Challenges • Marginalisation of some perspectives • Pressure to compromise may lead to deviation from project goals 25 Strategies Include representatives of marginalised groups within the school management committee and facilitate consensus decisions without sacrificing children’s fundamental right to safety and educational access. • Builds a common vision and sense of ownership in the school • Communities may place low priority on the safety of school buildings Encourage the school management committee to champion safety through the project and to continue risk awareness activities at Mobilisation Stage. • Ensures local site conditions and hazards are addressed • Insufficient local knowledge of infrequent and emerging hazards like earthquakes, tsunamis, extreme floods and climate change Create dialogue between community and hazard specialists using participatory hazard assessment processes to identify safe school construction sites. • Uncovers context-specific challenges and potential solutions • Local acceptance of poor materials and unsafe construction practices Orient school management committees to hazard-resistant construction and work with local resource people and external experts to identify weaknesses in local materials and construction practices. • Increases implementing actor’s accountability to community • Community concerns inflate the project scope until it is unachievable Clarify scope and constraints to better manage expectations and potential disappointment at later stages.