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Key activities of the community based approach equally important stages which bookend the process – the Mobilisation Stage in the beginning and the PostConstruction Stage after construction is finalised. SECTION II: OVERVIEW When a community-based approach is used in a hazardprone location, several key activities can help ensure school safety. First, the design must be responsive to the needs of the students, staff and community. Second, the community must gain knowledge and skills for disaster risk reduction. Each of the five stages is briefly described below, along with the advantages and challenges of a community-based approach. School construction projects, whether community-based or external, follow similar processes. These projects have a core Planning, Design and Construction Stage. In a community-based construction approach, there are two Government agencies provide: • • • • Strategic planning and mobilisation • Diagnostics • Tools Identification • Raise awareness • Form school management committee Policies, standards, codes, and guidelines Technical experts Approvals, inspection, and oversight Funds Community planning • Needs assessment • Feasibility study • Draft implementation plan Local community provides: Community design • Pre-design consultation • Schematic design • Design finalisation • Selection of construction management strategy Community construction • Construction monitoring and site supervision • Building local capacity • Practising and communicating safety Post-construction • Development of Maintenance and User Manuals • School handover • Development of maintenance plans • Support a culture of safety • Scale up and promote accountability School management committee • Preferences • Labour • Local knowledge Commitment to safer schools Implementing organisation (e.g. NGO, CBO, local authority) provides: • Program manager to facilitate process • Experts • Training • Funding • Project scope In the five stages of community-based construction of safer schools, school management committees play a central role, providing their preferences, local knowledge and labour. The implementing organisation, whether an NGO, community-based organisation or local authority, provides experts, training, funds and project scope. They facilitate the process through a program manager. Government agencies at the central and local level provide the policy context and approval process. They may also provide technical experts and funding. 23