Key actors A community-based approach draws a wide number of stakeholders together, who all bring important perspectives and skills to safer school construction. SECTION II: OVERVIEW • School community. The school staff, parents, students, school boards and neighbourhood receiving a safer school are at the centre of a community-based approach and have an intimate knowledge of the local context. They may also be directly involved in construction, project management, elements of hazard assessment or funding. After completion, the school community often manage and maintain the building. • Development organisations and actors. Development and humanitarian organisations, United Nations agencies and local NGOs may provide funds and assistance for school construction. They may also be important advocates for safer, sustainable and appropriate buildings. • Program manager. When development organisations or government agencies initiate community-based school construction programs, they appoint an individual to ensure projects meet program objectives – quantity and quality – within cost and time constraints. Photo: Danielle Wade/Save the Children. 21 • Local government. District offices of education, public works and other government agencies often prescribe technical parameters for design and con struction and supply land for new school construction. They may allocate local funds for school construction and monitoring, and report back to the central government. • Central government. Ministries of education, public works and finance often manage education sector resources and develop guidelines for school construction. They oversee public sector school construction programs and may also monitor those in the private sector. • Technical professionals. Engineers, architects, construction specialists and scientists may provide consulting services to specific projects. Through local and international professional societies, they shape codes, guidelines and good practice. • Policy and decision makers. Elected officials and decision makers formulate the education sector programs and policies that shape school construction. Each stakeholder has incentives and disincentives for supporting safer schools.