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SECTION I: INTRODUCTION Community-based school construction around the world The form and impetus for community-based school construction varies globally, as does the safety of these school buildings. 1. El Salvador Small private firms contracted by the government usually carry out public school construction. However, informal school modification is common when schools lack funding for operations and maintenance. Wealthy individuals also often donate land, yet these individuals may retain the property rights and later reclaim land for other uses. 2. Haiti Around 85 percent of Haiti schools are privately constructed and run – built by NGOs, community and religious organisations or by individuals. The 2010 earthquake destroyed close to 4,200 school buildings as well as the MoE building, crippling a troubled education sector. 2 3 1 3. Colombia Since the 1970s, the country has had strong building codes. However, parts of the country remain in conflict and outside of government control. In these places school construction happens through partnerships between communities and NGOs. 4. Ghana Communities typically contribute to the building of public schools. Contributions include labour, materials or cash for contractors. Community elders sometimes monitor construction to ensure obligations are met, but safety remains a concern. In recent years, high winds have blown school roofs off. 5. DRC 7. Mozambique Schools in the DRC have suffered from years of conflict, a lack of investment, and poor management. Vast swaths of the country remain cut off from state and external aid due to inaccessibility and a lack of roads. There, communities informally build most schools. After 15 years of civil war, the government and development actors rapidly constructed more than 16,000 school buildings, nearly half of which were built by communities out of locally available materials. As many schools are damaged each year by high winds and floods, the UN and the government are now providing better guidance for community-based school construction. 6. Kenya Kenya does not have a consistent school construction model. In urban and some rural areas, public schools are built by the government. But outside formal urban communities, non-profit organisations and communities often fund school construction. Until 2003, communitybased school construction was financed entirely by the communities, with the government providing teachers for completed schools. 9 8. Afghanistan Community-based school construction largely happens in areas where the government does not have strong oversight. They have mandated standardised guidelines for NGOs building schools and these NGOs are often directed to specific areas of the country. Despite high seismic and landslide risks, poor site selection for schools is common.