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SECTION I: INTRODUCTION Global education and school safety initiatives Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) In 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), prioritising universal primary education by 2015 as the second highest priority, following the eradication of extreme poverty. Education for All (EFA) Initiated through the 2000 Dakar Framework for Action and coordinated by UNESCO, EFA was a global movement to provide quality basic education to all children, youth and adults by 2015. Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) In 2005, the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) coordinated the first 10-year framework describing the roles of different sectors and actors in disaster risk reduction, with the goal of substantially reducing losses by 2015. Priority Action 3 supports the use of knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. The framework was to be succeeded by the Sendai Framework for Action in 2015. Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School This UNISDR-led campaign seeks to integrate disaster risk reduction into national and local curricula and to further promote school resilience to natural hazards. Child-Friendly Schools UNICEF’s 2009 Child-Friendly Schools model aims to improve education quality and learning outcomes by addressing student needs, school environment, curriculum and teaching processes. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) led to renewed political commitments and efforts to align Sustainable Development Goals with the United Nations development agenda. The efforts have highlighted how disasters disrupt development, making disaster risk reduction a fundamental component in sustainable development. These efforts have also called for a shift in focus from mere access to education to quality education, including safe buildings that are conducive to learning. Comprehensive School Safety (CSS) This framework for climate-smart disaster risk reduction in the education sector was finalised in 2014. The framework is supported by UN agencies and development actors, and aims to bridge humanitarian and development action. The framework is based on three pillars. The Three Pillars of Comprehensive Schools Safety 1. Safe school buildings 2. School disaster management 3. Risk reduction and resilience education. Learning from the past: Global school construction In the push to achieve primary education for all, constructing school buildings has been an enormous challenge for governments, development actors and their partner communities. School construction programs in the last two decades have successfully expanded educational access worldwide. Capital investment Today, the majority of school buildings constructed worldwide are through national capital investment. National capital investment is where governments ask the Ministry of Education (MoE), Ministry of Public Works (MoPW) or 7 their regional government offices to provide sufficient and functional classrooms. Traditionally, school construction was a centralised planning process. The MoE assessed needs and directly built using their own technical offices or in coordination with other ministries, such as the MoPW. Alternatively, they sought competitive bids from contractors to carry out the work. National and local governments globally build huge quantities of classrooms each year through direct construction and contracting. Capital expenditure on education, as a percentage of total expenditures on public institutions, is commonly around 10 percent. However, it can range from zero in some of the poorest countries to more than 20 percent in countries like Malaysia, Mozambique and Pakistan.10 Even with significant portions of national budgets spent on school construction, in countries with growing populations, the demand for classrooms still dwarfs supply. Existing classrooms may also be in poor condition, overcrowded or