45179_towardssaferschoolconstruction_0 (2015) - Page 14

SECTION I: INTRODUCTION The community-based approach challenge Community-based school construction may be one of the most innovative yet challenging forms of school construction for achieving both universal education and comprehensive school safety goals. In community-based construction, school- or communitybased organisations have key decision-making roles in several aspects of school construction. In some cases, communities provide matching funds as material or labour. In others, communities provide land or build additional structures on the school site. When governments initiate community-based school construction projects, communities typically manage the process by hiring contractors while receiving funding and support from central or regional governments.11 When development actors initiate construction, communities may offer their labour as a contribution to construction.1 In both cases, local communities may receive technical and financial support from national MoEs, local branches, designated social funds or development actors.14 Without support, the Photos: NSET, UNICEF, CRS, Arup, Sabre Trust, Save the Children. 5 safety of school buildings is usually compromised. Based on the failures and the success of community participation, experience shows that the most successful community-based school construction occurs when: • Locally available materials are predominantly used. • Communities are familiar with the construction techniques. • Only simple modifications are made to construction techniques already practiced by the community construction, and then only to ensure durability and safety. • All stakeholders are well aware of their roles and responsibilities. • Education and awareness-raising are embedded in all aspects of the design and construction process. • Community involvement is already culturally engrained.11,14,18