between white students and students of color or students from higher-income and lower-income backgrounds . Other subgroups for which achievement gaps may be shown include male and female students , English language learners and native English speakers , and students without identified disabilities and students with disabilities .
ACHIEVEMENT SCHOOL DISTRICT ( ASD ): Tennessee ’ s First to the Top Act created the ASD as one of four interventions that the Commissioner of Education may require to turn around the state ’ s lowest-performing schools . An organizational unit of the Tennessee Department of Education , the ASD provides oversight for the operation of schools assigned to it or schools the ASD itself authorizes . Priority Schools — schools with student achievement levels that place them in the bottom 5 percent in the state — are eligible for placement in the ASD . Schools remain with the ASD for a minimum of five years before returning back to the original district .
ACT : The ACT is a standardized assessment frequently required of high school students for admission into college . The test has sections in English , mathematics , reading , science reasoning and an optional written essay . Scored on a scale from 1 to 36 , the test is intended to be an indicator of college readiness . The rigor of ACT test questions generally align with college introductory course content . All 11th graders in Tennessee are required to take this exam .
BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM ( BEP ): The state of Tennessee determines how to allocate funds to its K-12 schools with the BEP formula . This formula calculates the cost of providing a basic education . The BEP includes three major categories of expenditures : instructional , classroom , and non-classroom components . Within the BEP formula , the primary basis for funding is student enrollment , or average daily membership ( ADM ). The majority of the BEP ’ s 45 components are based on a school ’ s or district ’ s ADM . Examples include students per teacher , assistant principals per school , and dollars per student for textbooks . Systems are free to raise additional money to support their schools as well .
ACADEMIC STANDARDS : Academic standards provide a common set of expectations for what students should know and be able to do at the end of each grade and in each subject . Academic standards differ from curriculum , which is developed locally in Tennessee . Curriculum provides the instructional programming students need to meet the goals established in academic standards .
ACHIEVEMENT GAP : Achievement gap refers to the disparity in academic performance between groups of students . The term is often used to refer to the performance gaps
CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION ( CTE ): Career and technical education refers to courses and programs designed to prepare students to enter the workforce . Usually in a secondary or postsecondary setting , CTE courses focus on academic and vocational knowledge and skills needed in the workplace . CTE seeks to prepare students for jobs in fields such as agriculture , engineering , and health care , and can result in the attainment of an industry certification .
CAREER READINESS : In Tennessee , career-ready students are those who graduate K-12 education with the knowledge , abilities , and habits to enter and complete postsecondary education without remediation and to seamlessly move into